Effect of Water Salinity on the Acute Toxicity of Mercuric Chloride on Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum 1792)
The acute toxicity of mercuric chloride (HgCl2), one of most toxic pollutants for aquatic ecosystems, in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was investigated in the present study at three different salinities (0‰, 7.5‰ and 17‰). Actual concentration of HgCl2 was ranged from 0.10 to 8.00 mg L-1. The acute toxicity tests were performed by 96-h static tests in different water salinities conditions. The lethal concentrations of mercuric chloride for trout, at the end of the acute toxicity tests were evaluated by Finney’s Probit Analysis. Concentrations of HgCl2 that killed 50% of the rainbow trout within 96 hours (96 h LC50) were estimated as 0.808, 0.602, and 0.583 mg L-1, for 0, 7.5, and 17 ppt (parts per thousand) of salinity, respectively. The sensitivity of trout to mercuric chloride was increased with increasing concentration of salinity.
Key words: Water pollution, aquatic toxicology, fish, heavy metal, mercury
Tam metin:222-228 (English)
APHA, AWWA, WPCF (1971) Standart Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater 13. Ed, Washington, DC.
APHA, AWWA, WEF (1985) Standart Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 16. Ed, APHA, Washington, DC.
Başer, S., Erkoç, F., Selvi, M., Koçak, O. (2003) Investigation of acute toxicity of permethin on guppies Poecilia reticulate. Chemosphere, 51: 469-474.
Bernstein Y and Montgomery WL (2008) Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss; Walbaum, 1792): a technical conservation assessment. [Online]. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Region. Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/r2/projects/scp/assessments/rainbowtrout.pdf
Beşli, E.S., (2006) Civa II Klorür (HgCl2)'ün Farklı Tuzluluk Konsantrasyonlarında Gökkuşağı Alabalığı (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum 1792) Üzerindeki Akut Toksisitesinin Belirlenmesi, Yüksek Lisans Tezi (MSc Thesis), Gaziosmanpaşa Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Tokat.
Boudou, A., Ribeyre, F., (1983) Aquatic Toxicology, Nriagu, J.O. (Ed), J. Wiley and Sons; New-York, 73-116.
Driscoll, C.T., Yan, C., Schofiel, L., Munson, R., Holsapple, J., (1994) “The mercury cycle and fish in the adirondak lakes”, Environ. Sci.Technol., 28: 136-143.
Duncan, D.A., Klaverkamp, J.F., (1983) “Tolerance and resistance to cadmium in white suckers (Catostomus commersoni) previously exposed to cadmium, mercury, zinc or selenium”, Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 40:128-138.
Eisler, R., (1987) Mercury hazards to fish, wildlife and invertebrates: An synoptic review, Biological Report 85 (1.10), Contaminant Hazard Review, No. 10, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Research Center, Laurel MD 20708.
FAO/UNEP, (1996) Operation of the Prior Informed Consent Procedure for Banned or Severely Restricted Chemicals in International Trade: Decision Guidance Documents, Mercury Compounds. Joint FAO/UNEP Program, Rome, Geneva, Amended.
Finney, D.J., (1971) Probit Analysis, Cambridge University Press, New York.
Gül, A., Yılmaz, M. and Uzel, N., (2008) Sakarya Nehri Kirmir Çayında Yaşayan Capoeta tinca (heckel, 1843)'da Civa II Klorür'ün Akut Toksik Etkisi, Kastamonu Educational Journal, 16: 199-206.
Güley, M., Vural, N., Toxicology, (1987) Ankara University Faculty of Pharmacy Publication, No: 48 (In Turkish).
Handy, R.D., Penrice, W.S., (1993) “The influence of high oral doses mercuric chloride on organ toxicant concentrations and histopathology in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss”, Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 106C: 717-724.
Henle, K., (1981) “A unique case of malformations in a natural population of the green toad (Bufo viridis) and its meaning for environmental politics”, Brit. Herpet. Soc. Bull., 4: 48-49.
Klaverkamp, J.F., MacDonald, W.A., Lillie, W.R., Lutz, A., (1983) “Joint toxicity of mercury and selenium in salmonid eggs”, Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.,12: 415-419.
Leblond, V.S., Hontela. A., (1999) “Effects of in-vitro exposures to cadmium, mercury, zinc, and 1-(2-chlorophenyl)-1-(4-chlorophenyl)-2, 2-dichloroethane on steroidogenesis by dispersed internal cells of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)”, Tox. and App. Pharmacology, 157: 16-22.
Louis, A.H., Diana, L.W., Patricia, H., and Elizabeth, R.S., (1996) Pesticides and Aquatic Animals: A Guide to Reducing Impacts on Aquatic Systems, Virginia Cooperative Extension, Virginia State University, Virginia, pp: 24.
Matida, Y., Kumada, H., Kimura, S., Saiga, Y., Nase, T., Yokota, M., Kawatsu, H., (1971) “Toxicity of mercury compounds to aquatic organisms and accumulation of the compounds by the organisms”, Bull. Freshw. Fish. Lab. 21: 197-227.
Molony B (2001) Environmental requirements and tolerances of Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Brown trout (Salmo trutta) with special reference to Western Australia: A review. Government of Western Australia, Department of Fisheries, Fisheries Research Division, WA Fisheries Research Laboratories, Fisheries Research Report, No:13, North Beach, Western Australia.
Olson, K., Squibb, K.S., Cousins, R.J., (1978) “Tissue uptake, subcellular distribution and metabolism of 14ch3hgcl and ch3203hgcl by rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri”, J. Fish. Res. Board Can, 35: 381-390.
Pardey, S., Kumar, R., Sharma, S., (2005) Acute toxicity bioassays of mercuric chloride and malathion on air-breathing fish Channa punctatus (Bloch), Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 61(1): 114-120.
Perry, D.M., Weis, J.S., Weis, P., (1988) “Cytogenetic effects of methylmercury in embryos of the killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus”, Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.,17: 569-574.
Richmonds, C., Dutta. H.M., (1992) “Effect of malathion on the optomotor behavior of bluegill sunfish, Lepomis macrachirus”, Comp. Biochem. Physiol.,102: 523-526.
Sastry, K.V. and Gupta, P.K., 1978 Effect of mercuric chloride on the digestive system of a teleost fish, Channa punctatus. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 20: 353-360.
Snarski, W.M., and Olson. G.F., (1982) “Chronic toxicity and bioaccumulation of mercuric chloride in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas)”, Aqua. Toxicol., 2: 143-156.
Sorensen, E.M, (1991) Metal Poisoning in Fish,CRC Press., 285-328.
Svobodova, Z., Luskova, V., Drastichova, J., Svobodova, M., and Zlabek, V., (2003) Effect of delta-methrin on haematological indices of common casp (Cyprinus carpio), Acta Vet. Brno., 72: 79-85.
Thongra-ar, W., Parkpian, P. and Tang, A., (2003) Toxicity of mercury to growth and survival of seabass larvae, Lates carcarifer, and the modyfing of effects of salinity, ScienceAsia, 29, 209-219.
Terzi, E. and Verep, B., (2011) Effetcs of water hardness and temperature on the acute toxicity of mercuric chloride on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Toxicology and Industrial Health, 1-6, SAGE.
Turkish Official Gazette, (In Turkish) (1991) Methods for Water Analysis in Water Pollution and Control Regulations, No. 20106, 7.1.1991, Ankara.
URL1. (http://www.avantormaterials.com) Material Safety Data Sheet, MSDS No. M1469, Avantor Performance Materials, 3477 Corporate Parkway, Suite #200, Center Valley, PA 18034,U.S.A.
U.S.D.A ( 2000) Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish and Wildlife Habitat Management Leaflet, United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service, Wildlife Management Institute, No:13, 11pp.
US EPA, (1999) LC50 software program, version 1.00, Center for Exposure Assessment Modeling (CEAM) Distrubution Center.
Van CT, Schofield CL, Munson R and Holsapple J (1994) The mercury cycle and fish in the adirondak lakes. Environmental Science and Technology 28: 136-143.
Verep, B., Beşli, E.S., Altinok, İ., Mutlu, C., (2007) “Assesment of mercuric chloride toxicity on rainbow trouts (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and chubs (Alburnoides bipunctatus)”, Pakistan J. Bio. Sci. 10 (7): 1098-1102.
Wiener, J.G., Spry, D.J., (1996) Toxicological significance of mercury in fresh water fish. In: Environmental Contaminants in Wildlife: Interpreting Tissue Concentrations, Beyer, W. N., Hernz, G.H., Redmon-Norwood. A. W. (Eds.), CRC Press, New York, 297-339.
Witeska, M., and Jezierska, B., (2003) The Effects of environmental factors on metal toxicity to fish (Review), Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, PSP Volume 12, No:8, 824-829.
Wobeser, G., (1975) “Prolonged oral administration of methylmercury chloride to rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) Fingerlings”, J. Fish. Res. Board. Can. 32: 2015-202.
El-Cezeri Journal of Science and Engineering is indexed by: